South America has witnessed the emergence of some of the most intriguing and diverse ancient cultures in the world.
Nasca culture flourished on the coastal plain of southern Peru between 200 B.C.E. and 600 C.E. The main centers were concentrated in the valleys of Acarí, Ica, Nasca, Pisco and Chincha. The capital, Cahuachi, one of the largest Nasca centers, was located inland on the south bank of the Nazca River and had agricultural terraces and public buildings made of adobe. Other known sites are Dos Palmos, Huaca del Loro, Cerro Soldado and Tambo Viejo.
Very large drawings (geoglyphs), traced on the desert near the modern town of Nasca, first brought this culture to public attention. The "Nasca lines" depict animals (such as fish, reptiles, birds and monkeys), geometrical designs and human figures. Some of the drawings are a hundred meters or more in length and can only be seen without distortion from the air. Their meaning and function are still debated, but are thought to be linked to the location of aquifers and springs
The iconography and symbolism represented by the Nasca lines are mirrored on polychrome pottery and textiles, with motifs portraying local fauna and plants, scenes related to subsistence activities, supernatural beings and deities associated with water and agricultural fertility. Water was vital for Nasca subsistence, which depended mainly on a diet of maize. The rivers were not a reliable source to sustain the levels needed to feed the local population and a network of irrigation canals made it possible to practice intensive agriculture.
Bu küresel formlu sürahide, maske ve taç ile süslenmiş, insan başına sahip fantastik bir kuş uçarken görülmektedir. The bird holds a human trophy head. Ritual beheading was a common practice in the Andes and scenes of decapitation can be seen painted on Nasca vessels.
Not all birds depicted in Nasca art can be identified to a particular species. Some representations are quite naturalistic, while others combine fantastic and anthropomorphic elements. Certain birds are still revered in the Andean region today. The people of the modern town of Nasca believe that the condor and other birds, such as the pelican and the heron, are manifestations of the mountain gods. To catch sight of one of these birds means that rain will fall in the mountains.
The technique and range of colors used on this large vessel mark the peak of Nasca achievements. The number of colors used by Nasca artists is larger than that used by any other culture in the Americas before European contact.
Vessels modeled into animals or edible plants are a common form in Nasca art. The vessel is painted in three colors: black, brown and white. A limited range of colors was used in the early phases of the Nasca cultural sequence, while at least ten were used in later phases. The most common shapes are bowls, dishes, vases and vessels with one or two spouts and bridge.
The innovative techniques and aesthetic qualities of Nasca polychrome ceramics make them quite unique in the Andean region. They were most commonly made by coiling. Slip was then applied, and the vessel was fired and burnished to a characteristic glossy finish. The slip was made from different mineral pigments such as manganese (black) and iron oxide (red). Their use represents an innovation on previous resin painting and ensured the endurance of the painted motifs.
A.F. Aveni, Nasca: Eighth Wonder of the World (Londra, The British Museum Yayınları, 2000).
K.O. Bruhns, Ancient South America (Cambridge, 1994).
D.A. Proulx, "Paracas and Nasca: Regional Cultures on the South Coast of Peru," Helaine Silverman ve William H. Isbell editörlüğünde The Handbook of South American Archaeology (New York, 2008) sayfa 563–585.
M.E. Moseley, The Incas and Their Ancestors: The Archaeology of Peru (Londra, 2001).
J. Reinhard, "Interpreting the Nazca Lines," The Ancient Americas (The Art Institute of Chicago, 1992), pp. 291-302.
H. Silverman, Cahuachi in the Ancient Nasca (University of Iowa Press, 1993).
R. Stone-Miller, Art of the Andes: from Chavín (London: Thames & Hudson, 1995).