- [David] Hey grammarians, hey Paige. - [Paige] Hi David. - [David] Hey, so Paige, I went to the grocery store yesterday and I got this apple and
I put it in the fridge. And this morning, when
I opened the fridge, the apple was all gross
and sticky and mushy and I really wanna write a
letter to the grocery store and say, "Hey, you sold me a gross apple." - [Paige] Yeah. - [David] But I'm stuck. - [Paige] Okay? - [David] I feel like I
ought to put a comma in here. So, here's the sentence I've got so far. "You sold me a mushy, sticky apple!" - [Paige] Gross.
- [David] Gross. - [David] Unacceptable.
- [Paige] Totally. - [David] "So, I would
like my $1.38 back." (Paige laughs) But in another draft
of the letter, I wrote, "You sold me a mushy green apple!" - [Paige] Okay, so mushy,
sticky or mushy green. - [David] Yeah, and I feel like, and I don't know how to
put this into words yet, but we're gonna put it into
words 'cause that's our job, (Paige laughs) whether or not there should be a comma between mushy and
green or mushy and sticky, 'cause these feel different to me. - [Paige] Right, right. Yeah, so there's actually a couple tests that you can do on these sentences to see if you need a comma
between the adjectives or not. - [David] So, Paige, what distinguishes a pair like mushy and
sticky from mushy and green? - [Paige] There's this sort of hierarchy or order that you put adjectives in when you have multiple
of them in a sentence, and it is called DOSASCOMP. - [David] DOSASCOMP? All together now, D - [Both] Determiner! - [David] O.
- [Both] Opinion! - [David] S.
- [Both] Size! - [David] A.
- [Both] Age! - [David] S again.
- [Both] Shape! - [David] C.
- [Both] Color! - [David] O.
- [Both] Origin! - [David] M.
- [Both] Material! - [David] And P.
- [Both] Purpose! - [David] Oh, okay. So, mushy and sticky are
both opinion adjectives. - [Paige] Yeah. - [David] So, these are
kinda in the same class, whereas mushy and green,
that's an opinion and a color. - [Paige] Yeah, they're
in two different classes. - [David] Right, so DOSASCOMP helps determine adjective order, right? - [Paige] Yeah, yeah. - [David] So, it's the order
in which you would use, if in which you were
stacking these adjectives you would use them in
this DOSASCOMP order. - [Paige] Right, so like
in the second sentence, mushy is an opinion, like you
said, and green is a color. And in DOSASCOMP, opinion
comes before color, so that's the order
that you write them in. So, like in the first sentence, when you have mushy and sticky, which are both opinion adjectives, these are called coordinate adjectives. They're in the same category of DOSASCOMP. And if you wanted to, you
could reverse the order. You could say, "Sticky, mushy apple." - [David] Well, let's try that. - [Paige] Yeah. - [David] Looks good to me. Sticky, mushy, mushy, sticky. - [Paige] Same thing. - [David] Okay, so if
we're trying to determine whether or not we have
coordinate adjectives, I guess the first thing we would do is consult DOSASCOMP, right? So that's step one. And what is a dosa, Paige? - [Paige] Oh, it's like a pancake, right? - [David] Yeah, it's like
a South Indian pancake. - [Paige] That's pretty cool. - [David] And to scomp
is a word we made up that means, "to eat." - [Paige] Sure, eat some pancakes. - [David] Scomp on 'em. So, that's step one. Step two, try the reversal method. - [Paige] Right, and
that's like changing it from mushy, sticky to sticky, mushy. - [David] And step three
is stick an "and" in there. - [Paige] Mm-hmm. If you can reverse the
order of the adjectives and you can put "and" in
between the two of them, then they're coordinate adjectives. - [David] And if they're
coordinate adjectives, you need to separate them with a comma. - [Paige] Exactly. And that's why, in the case
of the second sentence, with mushy green apple, you
don't put a comma between them. They're in different
categories in DOSASCOMP, and so they must stay in that order and there's no need for a comma. - [David] Thanks, Paige. I'm gonna get back to
drafting my angry letter. (Paige laughs) You can learn anything. - [David] David out.
- [Paige] Paige out.